Long-term nanoscience research in universities andresearch centres plays a key role by offering a rangeof novel approaches to the realisation of high-performancenanoelectronics devices as well as for developingnovel sensors, actuators, visual display technologies,etc. At the scale of nanoelectronics, theindividual electronic and other functions are performedby components with sizes that are in the orderof hundreds of atoms or often less. At this scale, it isdifficult to maintain the classical concept that wehave of a material. Nanosciences and nano-materialsscience then become strongly interlinked and it wouldnot make sense to treat them separately.
Of particular importance here is that the scale compatibility between nanoelectronics and molecular biology introduces the possibility of producing hybrid devices interfacing electronic and biological components- opening a wide range of medical and biological applications with benefits for health and well-being.
- Nanosciences and nano-materials offer breakthrough applications
- Nanomagnetism: very fast, very low power nanotransistors based on 'spin electronics' can be the source of new storage technologies with tremendous capacities;
- Biomimetics: allowing man-made structures to emulate nature by reproducing such mechanisms as molecular motors, machines and structural components;
- Displays: novel organic light-emitting semiconductor materials will be used to manufacture very thin and flexible visual displays with much improved performance;
- Nanophotonics: will still increase the speed and lower the cost of data transmission, and also have important applications in sensors technology;
- Molecular electronics - where functions such as transistors can be embodied in a single molecule. It has become a very active basic research field and,in the long term, may offer new possibilities for even higher performance computing and other applications;
- Nano-mechanical tools: these could include nanofluid management systems, nano-filters, nanorods and nano-tweezers, and molecular-scale balances. Nano-mechanical tools will also play an important role in research and production of future nanoelectronics devices; and
- Nano-sensors and nano-actuators: more sensitive and selective sensors and actuators will accommodate voice, vision, tactile senses and stimulation, as well as offering new applications such as biometrics and environmental monitoring.